- a rodent that can be a pest of landscape plants.
||- flowers are borne on a structure called the
The peduncle is the main stem of
the inflorescence. When the flowers are attached to the
main stem (peduncle) individually on short
(stems), this is called a raceme.
- in compound leaves, the extension of the
petiole along which the leaflets are disposed.
- this is the first embryonic root, that emerges from a
- a petal like unit on a flower where the
appears to be a single long, narrow petal. These
structures are commonly found on the flowers of members
Asteraceae Family (aka Compositae
See disk flower.
- the enlarged end of a flower stalk that
bears the organs of
a flower and eventually form the fruit.
- old plant tissue is normally less productive of
flowers or fruit and is more prone to
problems. Rejuvenation pruning refers to a drastic
removal of old tissue in order to allow or encourage new
tissue to grow.
For example, old canes on
lilac shrubs tend to flower
less each year and they shade out the younger canes
beneath them. These plants may be cut to the ground
after blooming to allow all the new canes to emerge and
grow. This will improve the blooming and overall health of
A less drastic way to rejuvenate such a plant is to
cut out 10-20% of the oldest canes every year. This
pruning rotation will allow new growth to compete with
the older, less productive canes.
- the amount of moisture in the air
compared with the maximum amount of moisture that the
air could hold at saturation. Warm air can hold much more moisture
than cold air. The relative humidity of air, therefore,
decreases when it is heated.
- pruning to remove broken, dead, diseased, dying or heavily shaded branches.
- periodically over years or decades, a flower
or border will need renovation. This will be warranted
when plants become overgrown and crowd each other or
seedlings spread plants to unwanted areas.
soils, time may cause compaction of the soils and new
tilling is needed to renew the air spaces. Infestation
by certain invasive weeds may signal the need for
renovation. Finally, a renovation may be just be desired
to make a change in the plant combinations.
- one of the common techniques available to home
gardeners for mitigation of damage to
beds and borders
animals. Repellants consist of materials that are put
on or near the plants which make them either taste or
smell bad to the potential eaters such as
rabbits, slugs, etc.
There are commercial products, home remedies and other items
such as soaps that will work as repellants. However, the key to
all repellants is keeping them on the
at the proper strengths
throughout the entire growing season. Most replents will wash off or lose their
effectiveness with exposure to rain or ultraviolet light.
Generally, the repellants do not fail but the
persistence of gardeners may.
- transferring a plant into the next larger
size pot when it outgrows the one that it is in.
- (adj. resistant) - 1) plants of the same
usually susceptible to the same
problems. Through selection or plant breeding,
may be developed that are resistant to the common
problems. These plants are less likely to get the
disease and, if they do get it, the impact will be much
less. Note that they are not immune which would mean
there is no chance of them getting the disease. For
maple trees are immune to
apple scab and will
never get it.
2) may apply to
insects which are no
longer killed by a certain insecticide. Whenever a
stomach or even a contact poison are used on an insect
pest population, there are always a few individuals who,
for some reason, are not killed. When these individuals
breed, a certain percentage of their offspring will also
not be killed. As this passes through many generations,
eventually, very few of the individuals are killed and
the insecticide is no longer effective.
One way to avoid this situation is to alternate
insecticides from different chemical families. Switching
insecticides periodically will prevent the buildup of
- during the daylight hours, plants carry on
photosynthesis which build
carbohydrates and sugars. In
the dark hours, the plant takes those carbohydrates and
turns them into plant tissue such as flowers, leaves,
stems and roots through a process called respiration.
Restricted Use Pesticide
- the Environmental Protection
Agency regulates the production and use of
United States. They have created two general
categories that apply to all pesticides.
Pesticides - These are materials that have
relatively small potential for misuse and/or threat to
the applicator. Anyone can go to the store and purchase
these products. No training or knowledge is necessary on
the part of the purchaser.
Use Pesticides (RUP) - These are chemicals that
pose a special risk to the applicator or the environment
if improperly used. To legally purchase or use these
products, the person must have passsed one or more
examinations to receive certification as a commercial
- many variegated plants are the result of a single
colored plant developing a sport with
colored leaf. This variant part of the plant may be
separated and vegetatively propagated to produce more
Occasionally, a variegated plant
will "revert" to the solid color of the original plant. This
often happens to a single
bud or division of the
this part of the
crown (reversion) to help maintain the rest of the plant in the desired
variegated color scheme.
- pertaining to two plants with exactly the opposite
pattern of variegation. For example, one
hosta has a green center and white marginal
variegation, its reverse would be one of the same type but with
a white center and green color on the margins.
- this term relates to flower petals or leaves whose
margins are rolled, bent or curled outward. See
rhizome or rhizamotous
- a rhizome is a stem that grows beneath the soil
new plants to develop at the
nodes along its length.
A few hostas, especially some of the smaller types, multiply
in this manner forming a loosely spreading clump. Some
people mistakenly describe these plants as stoloniferous but a
stolon is an above ground stem like
those on strawberry runners.
Hosta clausa, is a rhizomatous type.
- disease symptom characterized by yellowish or
necrotic rings surrounding green tissue
- most commonly used to describe a small, usually
hillside, garden meant to reflect an alpine site with
alpine plantings. However, with the exception that they
all include rocks of some sort, the term can also
describe many other types of ornamental
- the suffix, icide, means "to kill".
Rodenticides are, therefore, meant to kill rodents such
as mice, voles and other similar pests of landscape
- generally the underground portion of a plant that
serves to anchor the plant and
absorb and conduct water and minerals up to the leaves.
- a thimble-like mass of cells that
covers and protects the growing tip (meristem) of a
- the extremely small, hair-like roots often only a
single cell in width. They are the most delicate roots
and the most efficient in absorbing water and
from the soil. Root hairs are most easily lost during
droughts, flooding and whenever the plant is moved.
- describes a plant which has been growing in a
container so long that the root system has run out of
room to expand. In this case, the roots will tend to
circle around on the inside of the container and
proliferate the growing media. At this point, the plant
will begin to lose vigor and will show signs of lack of water quickly.
- certain plant hormones are able to encourage the
development of roots when applied to freshly cut stems
or, in some species, roots. These substances may be purchased in the form
of a powder or liquid for application during
Some of the commonly used rooting hormones or
compounds include IAA,
IBA and NAA.
- the cutting or removal of some of a
plantís roots. This may happen inadvertently during the
moving and transplanting process. In container plants,
roots that grow out the drainage holes may be allowed to
dry out and die which is called air pruning.
type of root pruning is when the roots of trees are cut
by a shovel or hydraulic tree spade out to the perimeter of
the root ball needed for transplanting. This is ideally done one
or two season's before the actually digging to encourage
the proliferation of roots inside the anticipated root
One technique often suggested for stimulating
wisteria vines is to prune the roots with a
shovel a foot or two away from the main stem. It is not
always effective, however.
- grafting involves the combination of two plants into
one. The upper part of the graft is called the
the case of
hybrid tea roses, this would come from the
plant that has the beautiful flowers but which has roots that are
not winter hardy.
The lower part of the graft is
called the rootstock or stock. In hybrid tea roses, this
would be from some "wild type" of rose that is extremely
winter hardy but does not produce beautiful flowers.
Rootstock of apple trees are often meant to cause the
tree to be smaller than normal i.e. dwarf. This makes
them easier to spray and for harvesting of the apples.
- 1) beautiful flowering shrubs from the
2) the "nozzle" where water emerges from a watering can.
Different roses will result in different patterns of flow
from a fine shower to a coarse drizzle.
- a cluster of leaves that radiate from the base of the
stem of a plant near the soil surface. In
plants such as foxglove (Digital purpurea), the first
year a rosette of leaves is produced which lives through
the winter. The second year, the plant flowers and dies.
- Hosta propagation technique which can help to speed up
propagation of slow multiplying
- the breakdown and disintegration of living or dead
plant tissue as a result of infection by a
bacteria. Generally speaking, problems such as root rots
are due to an overly wet environment. Poor drainage
often provides the right conditions for
fungi to infest
roots and cause them to rot.
- coarsely toothed to incised, with the teeth
pointed toward the base of the leaf
- refers to an above the ground stem (stolon) that
spreads along the surface of the ground and sends out
roots and leaves at the
- a fungus disease that forms spots or blotches that are
orange and resemble rust on metal. Many rust diseases
jump back and forth between two alternate hosts.
Cedar-apple rust spends the spring and summer on the
apples or crabapples. In the fall, the spores
jump to a red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). In the
spring, the red cedar forms an orangish ball with
tentacles on its foliage which produce spores to jump
back to the new leaves of the apple.